By Rick Ruddell
Ruddell examines the political, cultural, and social elements that contributed to the expansion in incarceration within the usa from 1952 to 2000. Controlling for the affects of financial tension, violent crime, unemployment, direct outlays for counsel, the proportion of inhabitants that's black, and the share of men elderly 15 to 29 years, Ruddell reports the impacts of political disaffection, civic disengagement, and social disruption on grownup imprisonment traits. The findings offer proof of the relationships among raises within the use of punishment and cultural or political values. the consequences additionally help the proposition that using punishment is an inherently advanced and political procedure.
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Additional resources for America Behind Bars: Trends in Imprisonment, 1950-2000 (Criminal Justice, Recent Scholarship)
1997). MANDATORY MINIMUM SENTENCES Mandatory minimum sentences specify an obligatory fixed prison sentence without the possibility of a plea bargain for certain types of offenses. Early examples included the famous 1973 Bartley-Fox legislation in Massachusetts that made persons illegally carrying firearms subject to an automatic one-year prison sentence. By 1987 the federal government established sentencing guidelines that reduced the range of possible sentences and abolished discretionary parole (Santos, 2003; Walker, 2001).
Ditton and Wilson (1999: 2) found that 27 States and the District of Columbia met these federal requirements for this federal funding for prison construction. On the face, TIS legislation appears to be very practical—detaining violent offenders for longer sentences prior to release should enhance public safety. Yet, establishing the same release date for all prison inmates also reduces their incentive to participate in rehabilitative programming while in prison. Consider the following scenario: Two offenders are sentenced to the same violent offense on the same day and are imprisoned in the same facility.
The following paragraphs provide a short history of both the war on drugs, and the legal mechanisms that were used to create conditions of mass imprisonment. Having discussed the importance of these social conditions, this study explains the underlying political, social, and economic factors that influenced the increased use of these mechanisms of punishment. WAR ON DRUGS A national war on drugs initiated during the 1980s is responsible for the greatest increase in persons arrested and sentenced to prison (Blumstein and Beck, 1999).