By J. F. Parr, B. A. Stewart, S. B. Hornick, R. P. Singh (auth.), R. P. Singh, J. F. Parr, B. A. Stewart (eds.)
From the start of agriculture till approximately 1950, elevated nutrition creation got here virtually fullyyt from increasing the cropland base. on account that 1950, even if, the yield according to unit of land sector for significant vegetation has elevated dramatically. a lot of the rise in yields was once due to elevated inputs of power. among 1950 and 1985, the farm tractor fleet quadrupled, international irrigated region tripled, and use of fertilizer elevated ninefold. among 1950 and 1985, the complete strength utilized in international agriculture elevated 6. nine occasions. Irrigation performed a very very important position within the speedy elevate in foodstuff construction among 1950 and 1985. The world's irrigated land in 1950 totaled ninety four million hectares yet elevated to one hundred forty million by means of 1960, to 198 million through 1970, and to 271 million hectares in 1985. in spite of the fact that, the present cost of enlargement has slowed to lower than 1 % consistent with yr. the area inhabitants keeps to extend and agricultural construction through the 12 months 2000 must be 50 to 60% more than in 1980 to satisfy calls for. This endured call for for foodstuff and fiber, coupled with the pointy decline within the development expense of irrigation improvement, implies that a lot of the extra agricultural construction in years yet to come needs to come from cultivated land that isn't irrigated. Agricultural construction might be elevated within the arid and semiarid areas simply because those areas make up gigantic parts in constructing international locations the place populations are quickly rising.
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Extra resources for Advances in Soil Science: Dryland Agriculture: Strategies for Sustainability
Agrochemophysica. 3:67-70. O. Pruitt. 1974. Crop water requirements. Irrigation and Drainage paper No. 24. FAO, Rome. E. 1982. Dryland soil resources. Science and Technology Agriculture Report. , and CG. Ainsworth. 1983. Agroclimatic atlas of Texas. VI. Potential evapotranspiration. Texas Agric. Expt. Station. MP-1543. College Station, TX. FAG. 1978. Report on the agro-ecological zones project. I. Methodology and results for Africa. World Soils Resources Project #48. Rome. Grace, 1. 1977. Plant response to wind.
Great Plains, about 60% of the 500 mrn of average annual precipitation may be lost directly from the soil by evaporation (Bertrand, 1966). The water may evaporate from the soil surface before it infiltrates, as the surface dries, or from within the soil, especially before a plant canopy completely covers the surface. As plant canopies develop, evaporation decreases and transpiration increases (Ritchie and Burnett, 1971). Soil water evaporation occurs in three stages, with the greatest potential for reducing evaporation occurring during the first two stages (Lemon, 1956).
Major types for row crops are narrow strip; ridge planting; full-width, no-plow; and full-width, plow. The types for small grains are stubble-mulch, ecofallow, and direct drilling. Mannering and Fenster (1983) discussed various SUbtypes of these practices which are listed in Table 1. Additional information regarding these practices is given in the chapter by Jones et al. on Tillage Systems and Equipment for Dryland Farming. The practices listed in Table 1 were developed primarily for mechanized crop production, as in the United States, Canada, Australia, and other countries.