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Extra resources for A History of Indian Literature, Volume VII: Buddhist and Jaina Literature, Fasc. 1: Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India
The final verse (7) has a parallel in the Ratnagotravibhaga (i. 154) and the Abhisamayalamkara (v. 21), and partially in AsVaghosa's Saundaranandakavya (xiii. 83 The basic text and commentary take up the question of transfer (samkrdnti) from one existence to another and deny any real transmigration of a being at the time of reconnexion (pratisamdhi) of the skandhas. The Bhavasamkranti, another short treatise ascribed to Nagarjuna, does not actually deal with this transfer despite its title. It treats five topics: (i) the absence of birth of entities and dharmatd; (ii) vikalpa as the source of the loka and thinking (citta), which is by nature without vikalpa, and the emptiness of the five skandhas; (iii) the non-existence of the dharmas given the ultimate non-existence of citta, non-duality (advaya) and prajnd; (iv) the pdramitds as means; and (v) the twin principles of updya and prajnd, the fact that things are 'mere designation' (ndmamdtra, the division between expressions and what 62 See N.
69 Dasabhumikasiitra, Chapter vi (E): cittamdtram idatn yad idam traidhatukam; cf. Candrakirti, MA vi. 68 (below, p. 73). 70 Cf. Santaraksita, Tattvasamgraha, Chapter xxiii, with Kamalasila, Panjika, i. 6 (p. 18). 71 See S. YAMAGUOHI, Shukyo kenkyu, 1931; L. de LA VAIXEE POUSSIN, MCB 1 (1932), p. 404; 2 (1933), pp. 147—61. 72 The fact that three (at least partly) comparable notions are found in some of the Prajnaparamita-Sutras does not seem to stand against this estimation since the conception in these Sutras is perhaps at the most a forerunner of the developed Yogacara/Vijnanavada theory of the three natures, which is reflected here in the Trisvabhavanirdesa.
E. beyond vikalpa and prapanca. And it would conform with the idea that only an as it were semioticized silence could adequately correspond to reality. 92 Consequently, to characterize Nagarjuna's philosophy as exclusively negativistic and his method as only apophatic on the basis of numerous statements in the MMK and other closely related treatises, to take this view as the single doctrinal standard by which the authenticity of any work ascribed to Nagarjuna has to be judged, and to conclude that a work that does not conform to this standard cannot be by (the same) Nagarjuna is a procedure that poses at least as many problems as it is supposed to solve.